IEEE In-text Citations

There are two ways to do include in-text citations, and they have more to do with readability than anything else.

Example 1

Include the citation at the end of the paraphrased sentence.

Because technical and scientific evidence is often incredibly intricate, visuals can be the most efficient and effective means of communicating complexities. Extensive research demonstrates that creating informational visuals increases people’s ability to understand the information they convey [6-10]. Text is the slowest way to reach audiences; graphs are quicker, and pictures the quickest way of all [11]. So, if your aim is to deliver complexity efficiently, using graphs and pictures in your slides can serve you well.


Example 2

Use the citation in place of actual words in the sentence. We believe that this practice is less desirable, for readability purposes.


….as demonstrated in [3].


….according to [4] and [6–9].



  • All quoted matter must be referenced in the text. There must be an entry in the References page that compliments that in-text citation.
  • Within the paragraph or sentence, the in-text citations should appear in square brackets, inside the end punctuation.
  • Grammatically, in-text citations may be treated as if they are footnotes (preferred) or nouns (very much less preferred for readability).
  • Editing of references may require careful renumbering of references, as well as the citations in text.
  • For more complete information, please see the IEEE Editorial Style Guide at Information on references begins on page 34.
  • Format your References page.